Supercomputers explain the large-scale structure of the universe

Distant quasars — massive celestial objects that emit large amounts of energy — produce the brightest light in the universe. Using the quasar light data, the National Science Foundation-funded Frontera supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center, or DACC, helped the UC Riverside astronomer. Simeon the bird Build PRIA, the largest suite of hydrodynamic simulations ever created to simulate the large-scale structure of the universe.

Simeon the bird.

“We have created something new Simulation model to compare its data with observations of the real universe,” said Baird, assistant professor. Physics and Astronomywho directed the research project.

As quasar light shines through the enormous clouds of neutral hydrogen gas that formed after the Big Bang, it reveals clues about the large-scale structure of the universe at a scale of 20 million light-years or more.

Priya, this bird and his colleagues announced earlier An article in the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics uses optical light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, or eBOSS. Bird explained how the briya is used.

„You compare the eBOSS data to different simulation models with different cosmological parameters and different initial states of the universe, different matter densities,” he said. „You can find a model that works best and how far you can deviate from it without violating a reasonable agreement between the data and the simulations. This knowledge tells you how much matter and structure there is in the universe.

The Bria simulation suite is linked to the large-scale cosmological simulation co-developed by Baird. Astrid, which enables the study of galaxy formation, the coalescence of supermassive black holes, and reionization early in the universe’s history. Priya goes a step further, altering the rules and initial conditions to create the black hole found in galactic information and ASTRID.

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TACC’s Frontera supercomputer helped astronomers build PRIYA, the largest set of hydrodynamic simulations yet of large-scale structure in the Universe. The figure shows the Lyman-α forest spectrum from the quasar light and the corresponding gas density and temperature from the simulations at redshift z = 4. The top panel shows high resolution, the bottom panel shows low resolution, and the middle panel shows Lyman-α forest spectra. (DOI: 10.48550/arXiv.2309.03943)

„With these rules, we can take a model that matches galaxies and black holes, change the initial conditions, and compare it. Lyman-𝛼 forest data from eBOSS of neutral hydrogen gas,” Bird said.

The 'Lyman-𝛼 forest’ derives its name from the 'forest’ of closely packed absorption lines in the map of the quasar spectrum resulting from electron transitions between energy levels in atoms of neutral hydrogen. 'Forest’ refers to the distribution, density and temperature of massive interstellar neutral hydrogen clouds.

„The Bria simulations required supercomputers,” Bird said. „The memory requirements are so large that they cannot be accommodated in anything but a supercomputer.”

TACC Award-Winning Bird A Leadership resource allocation On the Frontera supercomputer. In addition, analytical calculations were performed using the resources of UC Riverside High performance computer centerIt enabled Thomas KirkeProfessor of Bioinformatics.

The Pria simulations at Frontera are the largest cosmological simulations ever performed.

„The supercomputer should be big enough that we can run one of these simulations very easily, and we should run many of them,” Baird said. „Without something like Frontera, we can’t solve them. It’s not that it’s going to take long — they can’t run at all.

The above article is an edited version of a University of Texas at Austin press release.

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