## Quantum computers

Los **Quantum computers** They are one of the most important applications of quantum technology. These devices differ significantly from traditional computers in the way they store and process information. While conventional computers use bits to represent data that exists in two different states (0 or 1), quantum computers use bits. **Quits**. The most interesting feature of qubits is their ability to exist in a superposition, meaning they can represent a state between two possible states. This property is similar to flipping a coin and instead of landing firmly on heads or tails, it is indeterminate.

Quantum computers have the ability to significantly speed up the solving of some problems, but it should be noted that this acceleration only applies to certain types of problems. As such, these systems are considered special-purpose machines, with graphics processing units (GPUs) designed to accelerate graphical performance in games and similar applications.

He **Challenge** The main business facing quantum computing today is achieving the creation of computers with enough qubits to solve problems of practical relevance. The scalability of these devices is essential. A prime example is the role of quantum computing in cyber security, where it is estimated that around one million qubits would be needed to compromise the security of current communications. Along these lines, companies like IBM are working on releasing more powerful quantum computers, such as building a computer with 1132 qubits by the end of this year.

## Quantum Internet

He **Quantum Internet** It uses quantum effects to transmit information securely. A significant advance is quantum key distribution (QKD), which relies on the quantum principle of changing the quantum system to reveal intrusions to prevent interference.

To explain it in a simple way, we can compare it to a coin toss: we can create communication protocols that detect any manipulation of „coins” sent through the network, indicating the possible presence of an intruder. A quantum cryptographic system does not eliminate the possibility of an attack, but it does provide the ability to detect one.

QKD is already a reality today, and companies like Telefónica are conducting experiments with small quantum networks. The short- and medium-term objective is to establish a national network that allows interconnection with other European countries.

## Quantum Metrology

Another important field of application is quantum mechanics **Quantum Metrology**, which includes a set of techniques to improve the accuracy of measurement instruments using quantum effects. This area has one of the most promising applications in basic science because the foundation of much scientific research lies in the ability to accurately measure what we observe.

In contrast to quantum computing, quantum metrology requires a very small number of particles to perform measurements. As a result, concrete applications in various fields have been achieved. For example, quantum metrology was used in the LIGO project to measure gravitational waves.

In the medical field, quantum metrology is being used for the development of tomography scans, which promise significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

## Quantum simulation

The basic purpose of **Quantum simulation** It lies in understanding the behavior of systems that exhibit quantum properties whose properties cannot be accurately calculated using classical computers. For example, to understand the behavior of a more complex molecule, it is necessary to model the interactions between its components. Since these interactions are quantum in nature, it is impossible to simulate them effectively on a conventional computer. In contrast, quantum simulators, designed to operate according to the principles of quantum mechanics, provide a more efficient solution.

The process is basically this: if we want to understand how different variants of a molecule interact with each other, instead of doing expensive experiments with all possible combinations, we represent these variants in a quantum simulator. The representation need not be perfect, but it should be accurate enough to allow a behavioral study. Then, we simply measure the results generated by the simulator.

Quantum simulation has the potential to accelerate a wide variety of existing industrial processes, and its commercialization is imminent because these systems do not need to be very large to have practical and beneficial applications.

Other applications such as quantum optimization and quantum artificial intelligence are not covered in this blog. Quantum technology is truly fascinating and has the potential to irrevocably change our society. At Telefonica, we participate in many projects related to this technology, contributing to its progress and development.